These are my notes on x86 Assembly semantics written in the Intel syntax format (opcode dst, src).

Malware programs are designed to disclose, alter, and destroy information & services. Yet, they function the same way benign programs do. They are simply a collection of instructions for the CPU to execute. What makes them malicious or not is their intented purpose. CPU instructions can be studied most accurately using Assembly, a low-level language of mnemonics that are directly mapped to machine code computers understand. In comparison, malware authors may use Assembly to perfect their exploits and avoid bloat higher-level computer languages may cause during software compilation.


CPU Instructions in the context of the x86 Assembly Language can be parsed into operation codes and operands. For example, a x86 Assembly instruction will look similar to the following:

mov eax 0x41 ; move the ASCII character "A" into the EAX register

An operation code, or opcode, is the action to perform. In our example, mov is what we’re telling the CPU to do. Operands are arguments, data, or the subject we want to perform an action against. Here, eax and 0x41 are operands.


The following are commonly used opcodes within the x86 Assembly instruction set.

mov eax, ebx ; copies 'ebx' into 'eax'
add eax, ebx ; adds 'ebx' to 'eax' and saves result in 'eax'
sub eax, ebx ; subtracts 'ebx' from 'eax' and saves result in 'eax'
; modifies two flags: ZF if result is zero, CF if result is 'eax' < 'ebx'
; other supported opcodes

Stack Opcodes

push 0x41 ; pushes item on top of the stack
; other stack-related opcodes


Common operands in x86 Assembly are Immediate Values, Registers, and Memory addresses.

Immediate Values
Immediate values can be overt and/or fixed. For example, the value 0x41 is fixed as A in ASCII.

There are General Registers, the EFLAGS Register, and Segment Registers. General Registers are used to hold data values during program execution:

  • eax:
  • ebx:
  • ecx:
  • edx:
  • esp: points to the top of the stack; changes as items are pushed/popped
  • ebp: points to base of function; used it to orient local variables
  • esi:

On x86 systems, General Registers can hold 32 bits (4 bytes of data) each. They can also be divided into additional Registers to make specifying & fetching data more efficient:

eax = 32 bits ; a 9 d c 8 1 f 5 
ax  = 16 bits ; 	8 1 f 5
ah  = 8 bits  ;	        8 1
al  = 4 bits  ;	            f 5 

The EFLAGS Register can also hold 32 bits of data which is used to help make logical decisions. Each bit represents a different flag:

  • ZF (Zero Flag): set when result is set to Zero
  • CF (Carry Flag): set when result is too small/big for destination operand
  • SF (Sign Flag): set when result is Negative (-)
  • TF (Trap Flag): used for debugging; if set, the processor will execute one instruction at a time

Segment Registers track a program’s various sections in memory:

  • The Stack: used for local variables; pulsates in size as functions are executed
  • The Heap: designated for dynamically creating and/or eliminating new variables
  • bss: uninitialized variables
  • data: global & static variables that are required or explicitly initialized
  • text: the program’s instructions

Memory Addresses
Addresses are locations in memory. They can be represented literally or like this [eax] (this value is, “the memory address of eax”).


Endianness indicates how bytes may be arranged.

Little Endian
x86 Assembly arranges bytes using the Little Endian format, which means they are processed starting with the Smallest, or Least Significant Byte, first.

Big Endian
Networking protocols arrange bytes using the Big Endian format, where the Biggest, or Most Significant Byte is addressed first. Take the network loopback address as an example. It’s first octet (127; 011111111) in Hexadecimal is 7f. In it’s entirety, in Hexadecimal would be 7f 00 00 01. If it was written in Little Endian, it could be misinterpreted by network devices hard-coded to process data in Big Endian.

# in binary

# the first octet of in Hexadecimal is 7f
01111111 = 0111 1111 = (0+4+2+1) + (8+4+2+1) = 7+15 = 7+f

# in the Big Endian format
7f 00 00 01 

# in the Little Endian format
01 00 00 7f